Hindi word 'Adivasi' (Aboriginol/Indigenous/Tribal) is made up of two words, Adi and Vasi. The population of tribals in India is 8.6 percent (10 million). In Hindu religious texts, Sanskrit texts and ancient articles, tribal people have been used as racial, monster, wild and tribal. Adivasis have been called Scheduled Tribes in the Constitution. The major tribal communities of India include Bhil, Gond, Santal, Munda, Kharia, Ho, Bodo, Khasi, Naga, Mizo, Saharia, Garasia, Meena, Oraon, Asur, Birhor, Paharia, Baiga, Maria, Kondh, Kota, Bagada, Toda, Kurumba, Kadar, Chenchu, Great Andamani, etc.
There are 461 tribal communities in India which traditionally reside in seven geographical regions of India - 1. Northern Region (Jammu and Kashmir, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh), 2. Eastern Region (West Bengal's Darjeeling, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh , Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram), 3. East Zone (Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal), 4. Central Region (Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh), 5. Western Region (Gujarat, Rajasthan Science, western Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra), 6. South Region (Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) and 7. Island Region (Andaman-Nicobar) Most of the tribal people of northern and eastern areas are of mangolide race. The tribal communities of the eastern, middle and western areas are related to the proto austrolide rae, whereas the tribal people of the south and the Island territories are considered to be of Nigrito origin.
All tribal communities have their own distinctive language in India. Linguists have placed tribal languages of India in three language families - Dravid, Austric and Chinese-Tibetan. But some tribal languages also come under the Indo-language family. Of the 114 main languages of India, 24 languages have been included in the eighth schedule of the Constitution, Santali and Bodo are only two tribal languages. Even after being introduced in Bhili (0.67), Gondi (0.25), Tulu (0.19) and Kurukh 0.17% people have not been registered in the 8th Schedule (Census 2001). In the Indian state of Jharkhand, only 5 tribal languages - Santali, Mundari, Ho, Kurukh and Kharia - have been granted second state language status in 2011.
Tribal nature worshipers and worship forests, mountains, rivers and suns. In the modern times, due to forced external contact, they have adopted Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. During the English rule, it became a Christian in a large number, and after independence, the attempt of Hinduism has been fast. But today they are demanding separate religious code for themselves.
In the Constitution of India, tribals are notified in two categories- Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Tribe tribes. There are several provisions relating to Scheduled Tribes in the Constitution. Protective and Developmental The provisions relating to the protective of Article 15 (4), 16 (4), 19 (5), 23, 29, 46, 164, 330, 332, 334, 335 and 338, 339 (1), 371 (a) (b) of the Constitution ) And (c), are contained in the fifth list and the sixth list. While the provisions relating to development are mainly contained in Article 275 (1) First Provision and 339 (2)